This study aimed to assess the vulnerabilities, impacts, and adaptation strategies of households in the Soroti District, Uganda. The data from household surveys, interviews with key informants, and focused group discussions were used to obtain data on climate change and variability impacts, adaptation strategies, and vulnerability. The rainfall and temperature data from Soroti meteorological station was also used to determine climate variability and change. The Microsoft Excel 2007 and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16 program entered all the quantitative data. The results were then represented in tables, graphs, and charts. The temperature and rainfall analysis show that the area’s climate has recently changed. These scenarios were confirmed by people’s perception, along with increased drought, floods, and incidences of diseases and pests. That could have serious implications for agriculture, the major source of livelihood within the district. For instance, the delay of the 2013 March-April-May (MAM) rainfall onset and extended dry spell between the seasons led to subsequent poor harvests and serious crop failure. Other major impacts of climate change and variability on livelihoods include low fish catches, decreased water availability, lack of animal feeds, and decline in soil fertility. Although the entire district is vulnerable to the impact of climate change and variability, vulnerability is heightened for women, children, the poor, and the less educated. However, the residents have adopted certain coping and adaptation strategies to deal with the climate change impacts. The current coping strategies include selling household assets, wage labor, petty trading, and reducing consumption. Adaptation strategies include shifting planting dates, off-farm jobs, planting different crops, diversifying crops, and diversifying from farm to non–farm activities. However, these strategies are insufficient due to overarching stressors such as over-dependence on rainfed agriculture, poverty, and lack of information and technology. Moreover, there is an urgent need to alleviate poverty and unemployment within the district by creating employment opportunities for the locals and enhancing the micro-financing efficiency to improve resilience and adaptation to climate change and variability. There is also a need for robust contingency planning and the relevant institutions’ involvement in early warning. Local knowledge integration in climate policies also could enhance resilience and improve adaptation.