This study investigated warmed-over flavour profiles, microbial changes, shelf-life and sensory characteristics of minced cooked pork treated with Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) root and leaf powder during refrigerated storage at 4 C. A total of 8 treatments (control ¼ no antioxidant; 0.5ML ¼ 0.5% M. oleifera leaf; 1ML ¼ 1% M. oleifera leaf; 0.5MR ¼ 0.5 % M. oleifera root; 1MR ¼ 1% M. oleifera root; 0.5MLR ¼ 0.5% M. oleifera leaf and root mixed; 1MLR ¼ 1% M. oleifera leaf and root mixed; BHT ¼ 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene) were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extracts against the test bacteria was determined using the serial dilution in 96 well microtiter plates technique. Warmed-over flavour profiles were determined using the test for carbonyls assay where hexanal was used as a marker for warmed-over flavour. The check-all-that-apply sensory tool was used to characterise minced cooked pork treated with different antioxidants according to warmed-over flavour taste and odour intensities.
The results showed that the antibacterial assay of the extracts exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against the tested bacteria. The leaf extracts demonstrated better activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with most of the MICs at less than 1 mg/mL, while the root performed better against gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacteria. There was a significant rapid increase in the warmed-over flavour profiles of the control compared to the M. oleifera and BHT treated pork. The pork samples which had M. oleifera leaf, root, and their combination at inclusion levels of 1% and 0.5% displayed lower warmed-over flavour profiles that fell in the range (1.0–1.46 mg hexanal/100g fat) throughout the storage period. Consumer sensory evaluation revealed that pork samples treated with the highest inclusion level (1%) of the M. oleifera leaf powder received the lowest consumer rating scores for appearance. Based on these results, adding M. oleifera leaf and root powder can decrease warmed-over flavour development and improve the shelf-life of processed pork. Furthermore, the incorporation of M. oleifera root powder can potentially be more acceptable to consumers because of its colour compared to the leaf, which gives the product a green colour that may not be pleasant for some consumers. This suggests that the inclusion of the root powder at 1% may be well accepted for consumption by consumers.
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